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~    <- this char indicates the root folder (not sure if is the root folder but is the “basic” folder)

# This is a comment!
echo "hello world"  #This is a comment too!


echo [option(s)] [string(s)] :

the echo command can be used to print something, you can print it on the shell directly by writing something like echo “hello world” or you can put it in a file like echo “hello world” >



#!/bin/sh — Execute the file using sh, the Bourne shell, or a compatible shell
#!/bin/csh — Execute the file using csh, the C shell, or a compatible shell
#!/usr/bin/perl -T — Execute using Perl with the option for taint checks
#!/usr/bin/php — Execute the file using the PHP command line interpreter
#!/usr/bin/python -O — Execute using Python with optimizations to code
#!/usr/bin/ruby — Execute using Ruby

That is called a shebang, if on the very first line of a file it tells the shell what program to interpret the script with, when executed.

In the fist line, the script is to be interpreted and run by the bash shell.


chmod is used to change the permissions of files or directories:

In general, chmod commands take the form:

chmod options permissions file name
chmod u=rwx,g=rx,o=r myfile

If no options are specified, chmod modifies the permissions of the file specified by file name to the permissions specified by permissions.

ls -l to check the permissions on files

The chown command changes ownership of files and directories in a Linux filesystem.

chown [-c|--changes] [-v|--verbose] [-f|--silent|--quiet] [--dereference]
      [-h|--no-dereference] [--preserve-root]
      [--from=currentowner:currentgroup] [--no-preserve-root]
      [-R|--recursive] [--preserve-root] [-H] [-L] [-P]
      {new-owner|--reference=ref-file} file ...

The grep command is used to search text. It searches the given file for lines containing a match to the given strings or words. It is one of the most useful commands on Linux and Unix-like system. Let us see how to use grep on a Linux or Unix like system.

grep 'word' filename
grep 'word' file1 file2 file3
grep 'string1 string2'  filename
cat otherfile | grep 'something'
command | grep 'something'
command option1 | grep 'data'
grep --color 'data' fileName
Search /etc/passwd file for boo user, enter:
$ grep boo /etc/passwd


A pipe is a form of redirection (transfer of standard output to some other destination) that is used in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems to send the output of one command/program/process to another command/program/process for further processing. The Unix/Linux systems allow stdout of a command to be connected to stdin of another command. You can make it do so by using the pipe character ‘|’.

command_1 | command_2 | command_3 | .... | command_N